Parting From the Four Attachments:

 The Four Poisonous Dichotomies


Commentary by Ngakpa Jigdal Chopel (Michael Madrone)


Welcome everybody to our continuing exploration of Parting From the Four Attachments.


So last week we talked about how Buddhist teachings can be divided into different categories or different types, one type being mind training. Mind trainings started out as oral teachings for about the first 1500 or 1600 years. And then when they arrived in Tibet, people started writing notes and jotting down teachings.


So now there’s about 130 or 140 of these teachings written down. The most famous mind training are the Eight line, the Seven line, and Parting From the Four Attachments. Geshe Tashi Namgyal said all of them can be summarized in one line. Would you like to know what the one line is? He said the essence of all the mind trainings is that self cherishing is the cause of all of our suffering and all of our problems.


That’s it right there. And that’s the reason that Buddha Shakyamuni came and taught Dharma. That’s about as concise as it gets. But I also bring that up because we’re going to talk about self cherishing, we’re going to reference that. Self cherishing is the essence of our problems.


The thing about the mind trainings is that they’re really pithy; they’re really short. So even one single word can have more than one meaning. Last week we talked about Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen’s commentary, which is one of the texts that we’re going to be using. He said, “listen.”Then we went into the three faults of the listener: the Three Cups, which is a famous teaching. But there’s also another interpretation of that word “listen”, which is have the proper attitude when you listen.


So the proper attitude, according to one teaching anyway, is that the Buddha is the doctor. We’re sick with self cherishing. We have this disease called self cherishing. It’s a habitual disease, also contagious. The Dharma is the medicine. The Sangha, meaning the exalted Bodhisattvas, the very highly advanced Bodhisattvas, are the nurses. Our practice is taking the medicine. When we do our practice, we actually take the medicine of the Dharma. It’s not enough to have the medicine on the shelf and admire the bottle. You have to take the medicine. So that’s what our practice is. It’s taking the medicine and the treatment plan or, the cure is the Enlightenment Thought, which we’re going to talk about some more later.


The result or the final cure is perfect Enlightenment. So that’s what’s called the proper listening attitude. When we are told to listen, that’s behind that word “listen.”


We talked about how Dharma can be taught in different ways. According to H.E. Chogye Trichen, a great 20th century master, it can be taught by a great Dharma master from a throne. For example when Lam Dre is taught, it’s always taught from a throne. Another way is you have scholars, the great scriptural masters, who have memorized and studied philosophy and scripture and they give very, intellectual teachings. For a lot of us, really, it’s very difficult to understand. And then another way is what are called “songs of experience.”


When a great master has an experience in their practice, sometimes they spontaneously sing a song about their experience and then somebody writes it down, one of their students usually. Some of these songs are quite famous and the Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen commentary on Parting From the Four Attachments is one of those. It’s a song of experience.


So it’s very poetic. It’s not intellectual in the sense that there are not a lot of scriptural references or anything like that. This song of experience is inspirational to hear, to read. So we’ll be using Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen’s text a lot, but we’ll also be looking at some of the scholarly scriptural texts too, to give you a flavor of those, and we’ll be cross-referencing them.


So in Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen’s text, he starts out with homage to his gurus and the promise to write the text or to sing the text, which is a traditional way of beginning a text. He very cleverly, in my opinion, eases us into the first line.


Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen doesn’t announce the first line like a scholarly text might. He just dances into it and you don’t even know you’re into it and then you realize, “Oh, he’s into the first line already,” which is:


“If you’re attached to this life, you’re not a true Dharma practitioner.


That’s the first line. So what Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen says is that if we really want to be free from attachment to this life, it is true we need the traditional format of hearing, contemplation and meditation. But before that, we need moral conduct. So he puts moral conduct at the head of that list. What’s normally a traditional list of three, becomes four. He says it’s really a requisite to have moral conduct.


Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen gives three reasons, or three benefits that moral conduct produces. It produces a higher rebirth in the future. That is one of them. It also produces the possibility of obtaining complete Enlightenment. But besides that, it’s an antidote for all of our problems and miseries and suffering and dissatisfaction that we have in this life.


It’s also very practical for this life too, to be moral. Your life goes better when you’re moral. So Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen gives those three reasons. And he says that moral conduct is like the fertile soil that the other three, hearing, contemplation, and meditation can grow in.


It’s a requisite in the sense that it creates the environment for those other three. Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen says, conversely, if you don’t have moral conduct, you might as well abandon your hearing, contemplation, and meditation because actually what you are doing is creating a cause for a lower rebirth, which is sobering if you think about it.


So it’s really important to pay attention to the moral conduct aspect of this practice  before even thinking about doing the other three. We need to understand that. So he goes into a little bit of detail about that. There are two types of moral conduct according to Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen. The first type, he doesn’t actually name, but I will call it common morality.


That’s just a name, a title that I put on it. Then the second one is what he calls “pseudo morality” or “false morality”.  So common morality is for anybody who wants to create the causes of a precious human rebirth, which we’re also going to go into in some detail later.


But if you want to be a spiritual practitioner, you need to have a rebirth that facilitates spiritual development.  A precious human rebirth is the best rebirth for that. It’s not possible to have a precious human rebirth unless you accumulate virtuous action or merit, or positive spiritual energy, in this lifetime.


We’ve got to create that now. Virtue is absolutely necessary if you want to have a positive rebirth. So what are virtuous deeds? Sometimes in Dharma teachings, what you shouldn’t do is presented first, and then what you should do is presented after. So this is one of those cases that virtuous deeds are presented as consistently refraining from non-virtuous deeds, specifically the 10 non-virtuous deeds.


Now, that might seem counter-intuitive, but one of the reasons is we are living in a degenerative age. Karma goes up, karma goes down. Merit goes up, merit goes down, lifespan goes up, lifespan goes down. We’re on the down slope. We’re in the “kali yuga”- the dark age, when collective karma is relatively low, and the evening news verifies that.


One of the ways to create virtuous merit in this type of environment is to abstain from non-virtue, because it’s easy to be negative. There’s plenty of that going around. It’s important to know what the non-virtuous actions are. The list of 10 consists of killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, which are the non-virtuous actions of body; lying, slander, harsh speech and idle speech, which are the four non-virtues of speech. Envy, ill will, and holding wrong views, are the three non-virtuous actions of mind. So that’s what we could call common morality. Those are fairly obvious. It’s not exclusive to Buddhism to not lie, steal and kill. That’s just about being a good person. Then Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen goes into the second kind of morality, which he calls pseudo-morality, or false morality.


This is where it gets interesting for Dharma practitioners. There are two types of false morality that Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen talks about. One is moral conduct, or the false conduct that doesn’t abandon the eight worldly concerns, and we’re going to talk lot more about those. Then the second type is what he just calls false moral conduct. Examples of that would be a practitioner who has pride or contempt or competition or jealousy.


So those are the two types of pseudo-morality that Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen warns about. We Dharma practitioners need to pay attention to morality because as Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen said earlier, if we’re doing our practice, our listening, our contemplation and our meditation, and we don’t have really pure moral conduct, we can actually create non-virtue.


Obviously that’s not what we want. It’s counterproductive. So this is something that personally, I think is really important. And he mentions the eight worldly concerns three times. In a very short text, that’s a lot. So it’s worth going into.


The eight worldly concerns are often referred to in Dharma texts but they aren’t necessarily explained that often. So I want to take a little bit of time tonight to go into it so that we understand what the worldly concerns are so that we can make sure that our practice is pure and we’re not making this mistake that Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen warns about.


I want to be clear that what I’m going to say now is not a criticism of translators. I’m actually honoring them. But I do want to clarify what I think is some confusion about how this is presented. Geshe Tashi Namgyal actually said you should view your translator or your interpreter as your teacher too. So he personally considered the translators on the same level as he was as a teacher. To me that makes sense because if the translators and the interpreters weren’t there, we wouldn’t have a clue about what’s being taught. So thank you to all the translators and interpreters. It’s not an easy job.


Having said that, I had a little bit of problem with this word “concern.” I did a quick Google of this word “concern” and how it is defined and I saw that there were nine ways it could be defined.


For me personally, when I use the word “concern” it would be in a context like “I’m concerned about the price of tea in Darjeeling because it’s getting more expensive in the supermarket. Or “I am concerned about what the weather’s going to be like tomorrow and whether I should wear my raincoat or not.”


The word “concern,” in the context of “eight worldly concerns,” doesn’t convey the seriousness and danger of what we are talking about . It doesn’t really give the the true meaning in this context.


So what I have come up with instead is the expression, “The four poisonous dichotomies.” I think this gives a lot more clarity to what we’re really getting at here. These are not  “concerns;” these are “poisons”! They need to be understood and avoided at all costs.


As you can see, this  list of 8 is divided into four pairs. There are lot of different ways these pairs are translated, but I just picked out what are very common translations of these words. So you have happiness and unhappiness. You have fame and infamy or bad reputation. You have praise and you have blame, and you have gain and loss.


This is how they’re very commonly listed, although there are some variations:


Happiness and unhappiness

Fame and infamy, (or bad reputation)

Praise and blame

Gain and loss


So if you look at those two lists, they’re very different, aren’t they?


On one side you have happiness, fame, praise, and gain. On the other side you have unhappiness, infamy, blame, and loss. Now, our natural reaction is, “I like the first list, but  I’m not so crazy about the other list. I like being happy and praised, but I don’t like being unhappy and blamed.” That’s our natural reaction. It’s not only our reaction, but that’s how we live our lives. That’s the problem.


His Eminence Asanga Rinpoche calls it “believing the big white lie.” I think he’s being generous when he calls them a white lie. I think they are dirty poisons and we need to get this straight if we want to avoid the problem that Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen is talking about, which is false morality that can lead to non-virtue.


I want to do a little exercise with you, if you’re willing, to bring this out of the world of words and intellect and down into the feeling level a little bit.


I have listed some synonyms for the eight words, so to just pick one, let’s pick “acknowledged” or “acknowledgement” as a synonym for “praise.” So, just think of a time when you were acknowledged in your life. Maybe it was your boss, maybe it was your parents, maybe it was your teacher, maybe somebody acknowledged you for something you did or said, or for who you are. Some kind of acknowledgement that you got. And if you can remember a specific time when you were acknowledged, how did you feel? How did you feel when you got acknowledged? Happy? Proud? Satisfied?


Now on the other side, have you ever been blamed or falsely accused? Yes? So just remember that and how that felt. Angry? Sad,? Frightened?


Okay. Let’s do some more and see what comes up.


How about winning, which could be a synonym for “gain.”  Have you ever felt, “I’m a winner.” “I won”? Or “I’m on the winning side, or the winning team,” or “We won.” Did you ever play a sport or a card game or a board game and win? How did you feel?


How about losing or being defeated in life? How did you feel?


Have you ever felt respected? How did you feel?


Ever felt lack of respect or even disrespect? How did you feel?


We could go on through the whole list, but you get what I’m saying. On this side of the list, generally there’s a certain kind of positive feeling  or energy that you get. And on the other side, the other list, it’s very different. It doesn’t feel so good. Some of those feelings can be quite unpleasant.


If we look at the lists from a Dharma perspective, the “positive” side of the list is grasping, and the “negative” side of the list is aversion. Now hold that thought because we’re going to talk about that more, but would you agree that one list is very different from the other list, generally? How we relate to these two groups of dichotomies and how they affect us is usually quite different.


That is precisely the problem. It’s all a big white lie.  But we believe it and we live it and as a result we end up with self-cherishing, which Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen said is the cause of all of our problems.


These eight worldly concerns aren’t really “concerns.” They are poisons.


Grasping and aversion are poisons. We want to avoid poisoning our minds just as we want to avoid poisoning our bodies. So I think it gives us a better sense of the danger they pose if we call them “The Four Poisonous Dichotomies.”


If you saw a label on a bottle that said “Poison!” you would never drink it. The same should apply to “The Four Poisonous Dichotomies.” They present enormous obstacles to our Dharma practice and our spiritual growth. It’s important that we understand this and stop living the big white lie. One of the meanings of the word Dharma is “truth.” What Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen is telling us here is the truth of the situation regarding our practice.


We hear it said, “Oh, everybody wants to be happy.” Or, “Nobody wants to suffer.”


But how do we actually behave? We grasp at the things on one side of the list and we have aversion to the things on the other side. We do this without really consciously thinking about it usually. We just kind of run on automatic pilot. We don’t even have to ask ourselves, “Do I dislike suffering?   “Do I like praise?”  It’s just the way we are. But, it’s a habit.


All of these are habits and they’re problematic habits, poisonous habits. Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen is alerting us to start paying attention to these poisonous habits because they are obstacles to our Dharma practice. It’s important to start to understand that this is a big white lie that we need to start seeing through. Otherwise we end up promoting our self-cherishing and creating the cycle that we’re caught up in,  going around and around and around being reborn and suffering in all kinds of ways.


These two lists of the 4 Poisonous Dichotomies are actually lists of aversion and clinging, which are two of “The Three Poisons.” Our ignorance of this whole white lie is the third poison of “ignorance.” In this case ignorance is not bliss; ignorance is poison.


The three poisons are the roots of all the other poisons, for example envy, and so on, which cause all of our problems and suffering. The primary poison is ignorance. So what this really is, is a kind of white lie about the three poisons that we’re drinking without even knowing it. What do you do when you realize you drank poison? You panic and you have regret that you drank poison. “Oh my gosh. I’m sorry I did that.” However, we don’t normally think and act that way. We think happiness and pleasure and fame and winning and gain and all of those are good.


The Dharma teachings actually have given us a hint about pleasure, that it’s not necessarily a good thing. When we study the four mistaken conceptions that we have that keep us going around and around in samsaric cyclic existence, pleasure is number one. So in other words, we think we’re having pleasure when we’re really having suffering.


Going back to the Dharma teachings from “The Beautiful Ornament of the Three Visions” we learned about three different kinds of suffering. Pleasure falls under the second kind of suffering, the suffering of change. Pleasure eventually ends and inevitably morphs into suffering. It’s just the way samsara operates, and that itself if the third kind of suffering.


So we mistake suffering and we call it pleasure. We think pleasure is making us truly happy. When we experience pleasure, we think it’s really good.That’s what we think.


How can we prove to ourselves that when we are experiencing pleasure, we’re actually suffering? We can do it by listening, contemplation, and meditation. If we analyze and look into your experience, we see that’s true. That’s exactly what we have to do. Otherwise we believe the white lie and end up drinking the poison that causes you to suffer.


Buddha said, “Don’t take my word for it. Try it out in your life and see if the teaching is true or not.”

That’s how to do it. What I am talking about here is all intellectualization. This is the listening part of the three step process. We need to think about this and examine it. That’s the second step: contemplation. Then we need to meditate on it. By doing that, it goes in deeply and then we see if it is the truth or not. All three steps are needed.


So just to finish the list of the misconceptions that we operate under, we think our self is real. It’s not. We think our body is clean, it is not. We think impermanent things and relationships are permanent. They are not. When I say, “We think,” I really mean that we lead our lives “as if.”


We give lip service and say, “No, of course it’s impermanent; of course I’m going to die.” We give lip service to it. But if you look at how we lead our lives, we don’t live that way. We mostly have mistaken conceptions.


Now, another thing to think about in all this is we tend to hope for some things, and we tend to fear other things. When I say hope, I’m not talking about optimism. That’s not the kind of hope I mean. I’m talking about desiring something with wishful thinking. It’s more like, “Gee, I really hope I win the lottery with that ticket I bought.”


We kind of hope that we will be happy. We kind of hope that we will be prosperous and be praised and so on. Again, it doesn’t have to be conscious. It can be operating at a more subtle level in our minds. We’re just running on automatic from beginningless time: Innumerable  lifetimes of habit. So we’re actually a prisoner of hope and I’m going to read you some quotations afterwards from great teachers so that you don’t think I’m just making all this up. Also, the Dharma gives us a better alternative to senseless hoping: Aspiration.


We also operate out of fear. Again, we might not acknowledge it or we might not be in contact with it, but we do have fear. We have fear of pain. We have fear of suffering. Some of us have fear of death and so on, or being falsely accused or whatever. It depends on our experience in life and our propensities and our karmic predicament as Ram Doss used to say.


I simply wrote some synonyms for fear on the whiteboard, but you can put in all kinds of words here, and I invite you to do that for your own particular life situation and your experience and what triggers you.


Some people don’t care about their reputation; obviously other people are very sensitive about it. So this is where we get into the contemplation part of the listening, contemplation, and meditation process.That means to think about it and to make it real for you, how it applies to you. The benefit of doing all this is that it purifies your practice. It gets you out of this kind of pseudo-morality that Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen mentions in the text.


So the white lie is that the three poisons are masquerading as happiness and pleasure and praise and gain. This is a more in-depth look into Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen’s song of experience. The only phrase he says is “the worldly concerns,” but what we just talked about is what is underneath it all; the deeper meaning. So now I’ll read you some commentaries that some teachers have said about these topics.


One teacher is Dzongsar  Khyentse Rinpoche, who maybe some of you have heard of.  He’s a contemporary teacher, somewhat provocative sometimes, but always stimulating. He says that morality that stems from attachment to worldly life and performed for the sake of gain, fame, respect, recognition, publicity, all this so-called morality is contrary to correct or true morality. This is exactly what Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen says.


Dzongsar  Khyentse Rinpoche goes on to say that one benefit of bringing all this to mind again and again is that our attitude towards life changes. What used to be a big deal is not a big deal anymore. What used to work us up no longer gets us worked up, whatever used to drive us crazy, such as fame, praise, blame, loss, gain, pleasure, and pain quits driving us crazy. Slowly we become indifferent to the eight worldly concerns, the four poisonous dichotomies.


Rinpoche says, “Whether we lose or win makes no difference to us. At this stage, the eight worldly concerns cease to matter to us. We become seasoned Dharma practitioners with good life management skills.”


I love that phrase: “Good life management skills.”


Rinpoche continues, “Our general outlook is: Everything’s fine. Whatever the outcome, however things work out, we’re not driven by worry, and therefore we are happy. And then people start to notice that we are easygoing and friendly because we have no agenda and no triggers that make us crazy, then we’re a very likable person to be with. And then whatever we say may have a big impact on people. And then we are beginning to become quite an effective Bodhisattva.


“We become free because we cannot be bought by the eight worldly concerns. So we should pray someday that we go beyond the eight worldly concerns, truly not caring whether we are being praised or criticized from the mundane worldly point of view. Whenever you are praised, you’re supposed to be happy and when you’re criticized, you’re supposed to be unhappy. However, the sublime beings are not moved. This is what you have to aim for. So continue in a way that any decent human being would want you to behave, but at the same time, let this alarm continuously sound in your head. All of this is useless.


“The supreme sign of of great practitioners is not that they sprout a halo or they have extraordinary auspicious dreams or that they experience bliss continuously, or that they can foresee our miserable futures. The supreme sign is that they no longer have any interest in material gain, fame, respect from others, or being the center of attention.


“The purpose of Dharma is not to make us happy. The purpose of Dharma goes beyond happy and unhappy. The purpose of Dharma is to achieve Enlightenment, and this point is emphasized by Manjushri.


“As a Buddhist practitioner, even though you know only too well that death is imminent and inescapable, it is very likely that your calendar will always be full of business meetings and social events and whatever your beliefs. There will always be a summer holiday to plan or a family Christmas or Thanksgiving dinner or a birthday party.


“But as I have already mentioned, there is no guarantee that any of your plans will actually come to fruition. So hanging on to the belief that everything will work out for the best, only stokes the fires of disappointment. Remember this, because it’s an important point. Most of humanity’s most serious problems arise from blind hope and unreasonable assumption.


“As death draws near, try to give up your worldly concerns. Stop worrying about your family. Stop making plans. Stop thinking about what you haven’t managed to accomplish and all of the appointments in your calendar.”


I think Rinpoche should have added, “And have a nice day” after that, but he didn’t. So to summarize the teaching on the four poisonous dichotomies, all these concerns arise from the poison of self cherishing.


The four poisonous dichotomies are like armor which protects the beast of self-cherishing.


The stronger our self cherishing is, the more the four poisonous dichotomies strike us. We can become a victim to one of them or to all of them, and they can even come to dominate our lives. For example, we are elated when we are praised and we are depressed when we are criticized, insulted or belittled. We are happy at success and depressed or sad at failure. We have  joy acquiring wealth and we are dispirited when we become poor. We are pleased at fame and depressed, or even angry, at lack of recognition. True Dharma practitioners should ensure the cultivation of altruism and not be defiled by the four poisonous dichotomies.


The conclusion is that morality should not be kept with any intention based on attachment to this life, for example, your good name, your fame, your status, your worldly possessions, and so on, because the result of that will only be the cause for accumulating the four poisonous dichotomies, which are types of attachment to this life, and that’s what Jetsun  Drakpa Gyaltsen warns us about in the first line of Parting From the Four Attachments.


If one uses one’s adherence to moral conduct as a means for attracting respect or honor, or a good reputation, that is, our personal happiness in the present lifetime, all we are really demonstrating is how trapped we are in samsaric attachments. We can practice generosity, one of the six perfections, and the karmic result of that is wealth. But if we don’t have the proper motivation when we do that, it, it doesn’t even produce a human rebirth. In fact, we could be reborn as a poodle with a diamond collar in a rich family in Beverly Hills. So we need to really have our motivation clear. It’s not just enough to practice generosity. Also, the same is true for all the other perfections.


Without moral conduct,and without separating ourselves from attachment to this life, the other perfections do not even guarantee a higher rebirth. So this is one of the things that we practitioners have to be aware of. I can’t just think, “Oh, I’m doing the perfections, I’m practicing, I’m practicing the perfections.”


If we don’t have right motivation and clarity about the poisons and downfalls, not only does it not guarantee a higher rebirth, but we could actually create a lower rebirth. So that is not something to take lightly.


Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche, quoting about impure morality or false morality says, “For many years I was a critic of lamas who sought high thrones and high titles. That is, until I had the humbling experience a few years ago when it suddenly struck me that these lamas, who with my very, very limited perception, I saw as competing for the highest throne and the highest title were actually much less hypocritical than me.


“And why? Because they didn’t even pretend to be humble, which was actually much more honest than I, with my false modesty. And the inside glimpse of this was so embarrassing for me to say the least.”


And then Rinpoche went on to say,” It’s easy to say we have the right motivation, but we have to check carefully to make sure that this is indeed the case. Are we here to listen to these teachings with the goal of reaching Enlightenment?


“Well, we all like to answer yes to that question, don’t we? But we should ask ourselves, do we honestly wish to achieve Enlightenment? You should seriously contemplate this. Actually. For me, the idea of Enlightenment’s not that attractive. Samsaric success and gain and influence and the games we play are more attractive.


“I’m very much in favor of samsara and in favor of Enlightenment as a romantic ideal with a golden hue, radiant and omniscient, and all of that is fine, but only in times of distress. When I’m flying in an airplane and it encounters turbulence, do I ever really think about Enlightenment? And then as soon as I’m safely back on the ground and surrounded by my friends or family, then the desire for attention and gain holds sway over me.


“And I don’t give Enlightenment a second thought. So let’s remember to tune our motivation every now and then, especially at the beginning of each session.”


Let’s take a few moments and meditate on these precious teachings of Rinpoche and Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen:


(Guided meditation)

“So today has been a very auspicious day because I had the chance to taste ancient wisdom that’s more than a thousand years old.


It has come down to us in a real lineage through authentic masters.


I’ve had the opportunity to look at something that I had never really thought much about before, or at least look at it in a different way.


I’ll probably think about this some more, but for now, I just want to let it sink in and remember that self cherishing is the problem.


It’s the cause of all the problems that I have, the suffering that I have.


It’s a kind of poison and it spreads. It spreads in ways that are not evident It spreads into the eight worldly concerns, half of which I’m not even concerned about most of the time.


And as a result, I’ve circled again and again in cyclic existence, never being truly free.


All just out of habit, strong habit. Most people around me have the same habit and so it seems normal, but the wisdom beings see the folly of all of it, and they are free of suffering and that’s what I aspire to. I aspire to attain Enlightenment for the sake of all beings.




Okay,  now let’s do the dedication of merit.